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city, capital of Al-Buhayrah muhafazah (governorate) in the western Nile River delta, Lower Egypt. Its name is derived from the ancient Egyptian Timinhor ("City of Horus") and has historically applied to several centres in Egypt, mostly in the delta. The capital of a Ptolemaic nome, Damanhur was known as Hermopolis Parva in Hellenistic times. It was first made a provincial capital under Fatimid rule (11th century), and in the Middle Ages it prospered as a caravan town on the post road from Cairo to Alexandria. It was severely damaged in 1302 by an earthquake, but in the late 14th century the Mamluk caliph Barquq restored its fortifications to thwart Bedouin incursions.