|1.||Sir George Gilbert. 1811--78, British architect, prominent in the Gothic revival. He restored many churches and cathedrals and designed the Albert Memorial (1863) and St Pancras Station (1865)|
|2.||his grandson, Sir Giles Gilbert. 1880--1960, British architect, whose designs include the Anglican cathedral in Liverpool (1904--78) and the new Waterloo Bridge (1939--45)|
|3.||Paul (Mark). 1920--78, British novelist, who is best known for the series of novels known as the "Raj Quartet": The Jewel in the Crown (1966), The Day of the Scorpion (1968), The Towers of Silence (1972), and A Division of the Spoils (1975). Staying On (1977) won the Booker Prize|
|4.||Sir Peter (Markham). 1909--89, British naturalist, wildlife artist, and conservationist, noted esp for his paintings of birds. He founded (1946) the Slimbridge refuge for waterfowl in Gloucestershire|
|5.||his father, Robert Falcon. 1868--1912, British naval officer and explorer of the Antarctic. He commanded two Antarctic expeditions (1901--04; 1910--12) and reached the South Pole on Jan 18, 1912, shortly after Amundsen; he and the rest of his party died on the return journey|
|6.||Sir Walter. 1771--1832, Scottish romantic novelist and poet. He is remembered chiefly for the "Waverley" historical novels, including Waverley (1814), Rob Roy (1817), The Heart of Midlothian (1818), inspired by Scottish folklore and history, and Ivanhoe (1819), Kenilworth (1821), Quentin Durward (1823), and Redgauntlet (1824). His narrative poems include The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805), Marmion (1808), and The Lady of the Lake (1810)|
A controversial ruling made by the Supreme Court in 1857, shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War. Dred Scott, a slave, sought to be declared a free man on the basis that he had lived for a time in a “free” territory with his master. The Court decided that, under the Constitution, Scott was his master's property and was not a citizen of the United States. The Court also declared that the Missouri Compromise, which prohibited slavery in certain areas, unconstitutionally deprived people of property — their slaves. The Dred Scott decision was a serious blow to abolitionists (see abolitionism).