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city, seat (1844) of Fond du Lac county, east-central Wisconsin, U.S. It lies on the Fond du Lac River, at the southern end of Lake Winnebago, about 55 miles (90 km) northwest of Milwaukee. Ho-Chunk Nation (Winnebago) Indians were early inhabitants of the area. The city originated in 1785 as a French trading post, named for its location at the "bottom of the lake." It was laid out in 1835 and settled the following year, and it attracted many German immigrants. The economy was originally based on lumbering and grain milling but is now diversified and depends primarily on dairy farming and manufacturing (machine tools, agricultural equipment, automotive parts, and outboard motors and other marine equipment). St. Paul's Cathedral contains an excellent collection of wood carvings from Oberammergau, Germany. Galloway House and Village is a 30-room mansion (1880) surrounded by some two dozen historic buildings. The city is the seat of Marian College of Fond du Lac (1936) and the two-year University of Wisconsin-Fond du Lac (1968). Southwest of the city is Horicon Marsh, a 50-square-mile (130-square-km) wetland wildlife refuge known for its abundant bird life. Inc. village, 1847; city, 1852. Pop. (1990) 37,757; (2000) 42,203.