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city, North Rhine-Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. It lies south of Dortmund, at the confluence of the Ennepe and Volme rivers just south of the Ruhr. Hagen is situated on the eastern edge of the industrial Ruhr district and is bordered to the south by the Sauerland, a mountainous area of forests and lakes. First mentioned in the 8th century, it continued as an agricultural village until the late medieval period, when iron-ore mining and iron founding became important and when varied crafts were established. Cutters and armourers from Solingen were settled there by Frederick William of Brandenburg, the Great Elector, in 1661; these were followed by paper millers and, in the 18th century, by cloth makers from Berg and Julich. Civic rights were granted in 1746. Industrial development began in the 19th century, and, prior to World War II, Hagen absorbed the neighbouring towns of Haspe, Boele, and Vorhalle. In 1975 Hohenlimburg, a site of major steel production, was also incorporated.