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village on the left bank of a now dry course of the Ravi River, west-southwest of the town of Sahiwal, in the Punjab, in eastern Pakistan. The village stands on an extensive series of mounds in which excavations since 1921 have disclosed the remains of a large city of the Indus civilization (q.v.), in size second only to Mohenjo-daro, which lies about 400 miles (644 km) to the southwest. The English archaeologist Sir John Marshall initiated and directed the original excavations at the site beginning in 1921. His findings pushed back knowledge of Indian prehistory to about 3500 BC.