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city, eastern Ukraine. It lies in the centre of the Donets Basin industrial area on the headwaters of the small Korsun River. Horlivka was founded in 1867 as a mining settlement beside the newly constructed railway from Kharkiv to Taganrog on the Sea of Azov. Several other small mining settlements were incorporated into Horlivka, which became a town in 1932 and was eventually one of the largest coal-mining centres of the area, especially for coking coal. Its many pits have included some of the deepest of this field, and their waste heaps became dominant landmarks. A large engineering industry making coal-mining machinery also developed, as did a chemical complex. A network of railways links Horlivka to neighbouring towns, including Nikitovka. Pop. (2001) 292,250; (2005 est.) 279,061.