|a screen or mat covered with a dark material for shielding a camera lens from excess light or glare.|
|a calculus or concretion found in the stomach or intestines of certain animals, esp. ruminants, formerly reputed to be an effective remedy for poison.|
|louis (ˈluːɪ, French lwi)|
|—n , pl louis|
|short for louis d'or|
|1.||known as Louis the German. ?804--876 |
|2.||1845--86, king of Bavaria (1864--86): noted for his extravagant castles and his patronage of Wagner. Declared insane (1886), he drowned himself|
|3.||de Bourbon. See (Prince de) Condé|
|known as Louis the Bavarian. ?1287--1347, king of Germany (1314--47) and Holy Roman Emperor (1328--47)|
|known as Louis le Fainéant. ?967--987 |
|known as Louis le Jeune. c. 1120--80, king of France (1137--80). He engaged in frequent hostilities (1152--74) with Henry II of England|
|known as Saint Louis. 1214--70, king of France (1226--70): led the Sixth Crusade (1248--54) and was held to ransom (1250); died at Tunis while on another crusade|
|1423--83, king of France (1461--83); involved in a struggle with his vassals, esp the duke of Burgundy, in his attempt to unite France under an absolute monarchy|
|1462--1515, king of France (1498--1515), who fought a series of unsuccessful wars in Italy|
|1601--43, king of France (1610--43). His mother (Marie de Médicis) was regent until 1617; after 1624 he was influenced by his chief minister Richelieu|
|known as le roi soleil (the Sun King). 1638--1715, king of France (1643--1715); son of Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. Effective ruler from 1661, he established an absolute monarchy. His attempt to establish French supremacy in Europe, waging almost continual wars from 1667 to 1714, ultimately failed. But his reign is regarded as a golden age of French literature and art|
|1710--74, king of France (1715--74); great-grandson of Louis XIV. He engaged France in a series of wars, esp the disastrous Seven Years' War (1756--63), which undermined the solvency and authority of the crown|
|1754--93, king of France (1774--92); grandson of Louis XV. He married Marie Antoinette in 1770 and they were guillotined during the French Revolution|
|1785--95, titular king of France (1793--95) during the Revolution, after the execution of his father Louis XVI; he died in prison|
|1755--1824, king of France (1814--24); younger brother of Louis XVI. He became titular king after the death of Louis XVII (1795) and ascended the throne at the Bourbon restoration in 1814. He was forced to flee during the Hundred Days|
A king of France in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Louis was known as the Sun King for his power and splendor. By inviting French nobles to live in luxury at his palace at Versailles, he removed them as threats and greatly increased his own power. He is known for saying, “L'état, c'est moi” (“I am the state”).
The last king of France before the French Revolution; the husband of Marie Antoinette. He at first accepted a change from absolute monarchy (see ancien régime) to constitutional monarchy in France. Then he tried to flee the country and was brought back a prisoner. Radicals, including the Jacobins, assumed control of the revolution and had Louis and Marie Antoinette beheaded for treason.
gold coin circulated in France before the Revolution. The franc (q.v.) and livre were silver coins that had shrunk in value to such an extent that by 1740 coins of a larger denomination were needed. The French kings therefore had gold coins struck and called after their name Louis, or louis d'or ("gold Louis"). After the Revolution, Napoleon continued the practice but called the coins "napoleons." They had a value of 20 francs.
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