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city, south-central Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India, bounded on the west by Kerala state. It is the second largest, and probably oldest, city in the state. Located on the Vaigai River and enclosed by the Anai, Naga, and Pasu (Elephant, Snake, and Cow) hills, the compact old city, site of the Pandya (4th-11th century AD) capital, centres on Minaksi-Sundaresvara Temple. The temple, Tirumala Nayak palace, Teppakulam tank (an earthen embankment reservoir), and a 1,000-pillared hall were rebuilt in the Vijayanagar period (16th-17th century) after the total destruction of the city in 1310. The city walls were removed by the British in 1837 to enable the city to expand, and administrative and residential quarters formed north of the river.