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Neanderthal

[nee-an-der-thawl, -tawl, -tahl; ney-ahn-der-tahl] /niˈæn dərˌθɔl, -ˌtɔl, -ˌtɑl; neɪˈɑn dərˌtɑl/
adjective
1.
of or relating to Neanderthal man.
2.
(often lowercase) Informal. primitive, unenlightened, or reactionary; culturally or intellectually backward.
noun
4.
(often lowercase) Informal.
  1. an unenlightened or ignorant person; barbarian.
  2. a reactionary; a person with very old-fashioned ideas.
Also, Neandertal
[nee-an-der-tawl, -tahl, ney-ahn-der-tahl] /niˈæn dərˌtɔl, -ˌtɑl, neɪˈɑn dərˌtɑl/ (Show IPA),
(for defs 1, 3).
Origin
1860-1865
1860-65; after Neanderthal, valley in Germany, near Düsseldorf, where evidence of Neanderthal man was first found
Related forms
Neanderthaler, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for Neanderthal

Neanderthal

/nɪˈændəˌtɑːl/
adjective
1.
relating to or characteristic of Neanderthal man
2.
primitive; uncivilized
3.
(informal) ultraconservative; reactionary
noun
4.
a person showing any such characteristics
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for Neanderthal
adj.

1861, in reference to a type of extinct hominid, from German Neanderthal "Neander Valley," name of a gorge near Düsseldorf where humanoid fossils were identified in 1856. The place name is from the Graecized form of Joachim Neumann (literally "new man," Greek *neo-ander), 1650-1680, German pastor, poet and hymn-writer, who made this a favorite spot in the 1670s. Adopting a classical form of one's surname was a common practice among educated Germans in this era. As a noun, by 1915; as a type f a big, brutish, stupid person from 1926.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Neanderthal in Science
Neanderthal (nē-ān'dər-thôl', -tôl') or Neandertal
  (nē-ān'dər-thôl', -tôl')   
An extinct variety of human that lived throughout Europe and in parts of western Asia and northern Africa during the late Pleistocene Epoch, until about 30,000 years ago. Neanderthals had a stocky build and large skulls with thick eyebrow ridges and big teeth. They usually lived in caves, made flaked stone tools, and were the earliest humans known to bury their dead. Neanderthals were either a subspecies of modern humans (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) or a separate, closely related species (Homo neanderthalensis). They coexisted with early modern humans (Cro-Magnons) for several thousand years before becoming extinct, but are not generally believed to have interbred with them. See also Mousterian.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Neanderthal in Culture
Neanderthal [(nee-an-duhr-thawl, nee-an-duhr-tawl)]

The ancient and now extinct relatives of modern humans. Neanderthals lived in Europe about 150,000 years ago and were the earliest form of the human species, Homo sapiens.

Note: The term Neanderthal is sometimes used to refer to a person who is thought to have primitive or unenlightened ideas: “I tried talking politics to Joe, but he's a real Neanderthal.”
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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