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Note: Pakistan became part of British India in 1857. When India gained its independence in 1947, Muslim leaders demanded a separate Muslim state, and the nation of Pakistan was established. Originally, Pakistan consisted of two regions, West Pakistan (now Pakistan) and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
Note: In 1998, Pakistan successfully conducted tests of nuclear weapons.
Note: In 2001, Pakistan's president allowed the United States to use his country as a base to attack Afghanistan for harboring Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda members.