|1.||a republic in S Asia, on the Arabian Sea: the Union of Pakistan, formed in 1947, comprised West and East Pakistan; East Pakistan gained independence as Bangladesh in 1971 and West Pakistan became Pakistan; a member of the Commonwealth from 1947, it withdrew from 1972 until 1989; contains the fertile plains of the Indus valley rising to mountains in the north and west Official language: Urdu. Official religion: Muslim. Currency: rupee. Capital: Islamabad. Pop: 157 315 000 (2004 est). Area: 801 508 sq km (309 463 sq miles)|
|2.||a former republic in S Asia consisting of the provinces of West Pakistan and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), 1500 km (900 miles) apart: formed in 1947 from the predominantly Muslim parts of India|
|a scrap or morsel of food left at a meal.|
|a printed punctuation mark (‽), available only in some typefaces, designed to combine the question mark (?) and the exclamation point (!), indicating a mixture of query and interjection, as after a rhetorical question.|
Note: Pakistan became part of British India in 1857. When India gained its independence in 1947, Muslim leaders demanded a separate Muslim state, and the nation of Pakistan was established. Originally, Pakistan consisted of two regions, West Pakistan (now Pakistan) and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
Note: In 1998, Pakistan successfully conducted tests of nuclear weapons.
Note: In 2001, Pakistan's president allowed the United States to use his country as a base to attack Afghanistan for harboring Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda members.