|Italian name: Italia a republic in S Europe, occupying a peninsula in the Mediterranean between the Tyrrhenian and the Adriatic Seas, with the islands of Sardinia and Sicily to the west: first united under the Romans but became fragmented into numerous political units in the Middle Ages; united kingdom proclaimed in 1861; under the dictatorship of Mussolini (1922--43); became a republic in 1946; a member of the European Union. It is generally mountainous, with the Alps in the north and the Apennines running the length of the peninsula. Official language: Italian. Religion: Roman Catholic majority. Currency: euro. Capital: Rome. Pop: 57 346 000 (2004 est) Area: 301 247 sq km (116 312 sq miles)|
|1.||Italian name: Roma the capital of Italy, on the River Tiber: includes the independent state of the Vatican City; traditionally founded by Romulus on the Palatine Hill in 753 |
|2.||the Roman Empire|
|3.||the Roman Catholic Church or Roman Catholicism|
Republic in southern Europe, jutting into the Mediterranean Sea as a boot-shaped peninsula, surrounded on the east, south, and west by arms of the Mediterranean, and bordered to the northwest by France, to the north by Switzerland and Austria, and to the northeast by Yugoslavia. The country includes the large islands of Sicily and Sardinia, as well as many smaller islands, such as Capri. Its capital and largest city is Rome.
Note: Italy was the core of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire from the fourth century b.c. to the fifth century a.d.
Note: Beginning in the fourteenth century, the Italian Renaissance brought Europe out of the Middle Ages with its outstanding contributions to the arts. To this day, Italy continues to be associated with great artistic achievement and is home to countless masterpieces.
Note: Under the fascist leadership of Benito Mussolini (see fascism), Italy began colonization in Africa and entered a military alliance with Germany and Japan. These countries were known as the Axis powers in World War II.
Note: Italy has been a member of NATO since 1949.
Note: Italian cooking, featuring pasta, has become a staple of the American diet.
Capital of Italy, largest city in the country, and seat of the Roman Catholic Church (see Vatican City State; see also Vatican), located on the Tiber River in west-central Italy. Rome is one of the world's great centers of history, art, architecture, and religion.
Note: Rome was the capital of the Roman Republic (fourth century to first century b.c.) and the Roman Empire (first century b.c. to fifth century a.d.), whose domains, at their height, spread from Great Britain to present-day Iran and included all the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.
Note: In a.d. 800, Rome again became associated with imperial power when Charlemagne was crowned there as the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Note: Rome was proclaimed capital of Italy in 1871, after Italian forces took control of the city from the pope.
Note: It is called the “Eternal City.”
Note: “All roads lead to Rome” is a well-known proverb.
Note: Ancient Rome is often referred to as the “City of Seven Hills” because it was built on seven hills surrounded by a line of fortifications.
Note: Its landmarks include the Colosseum, the Appian Way, the Pantheon, the Forum, the Arch of Constantine, and Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican.
Acts 18:2; 27:1, 6; Heb. 13:24), like most geographical names, was differently used at different periods of history. As the power of Rome advanced, nations were successively conquered and added to it till it came to designate the whole country to the south of the Alps. There was constant intercourse between Palestine and Italy in the time of the Romans.
the most celebrated city in the world at the time of Christ. It is said to have been founded B.C. 753. When the New Testament was written, Rome was enriched and adorned with the spoils of the world, and contained a population estimated at 1,200,000, of which the half were slaves, and including representatives of nearly every nation then known. It was distinguished for its wealth and luxury and profligacy. The empire of which it was the capital had then reached its greatest prosperity. On the day of Pentecost there were in Jerusalem "strangers from Rome," who doubtless carried with them back to Rome tidings of that great day, and were instrumental in founding the church there. Paul was brought to this city a prisoner, where he remained for two years (Acts 28:30, 31) "in his own hired house." While here, Paul wrote his epistles to the Philippians, to the Ephesians, to the Colossians, to Philemon, and probably also to the Hebrews. He had during these years for companions Luke and Aristarchus (Acts 27:2), Timothy (Phil. 1:1; Col. 1:1), Tychicus (Eph. 6: 21), Epaphroditus (Phil. 4:18), and John Mark (Col. 4:10). (See PAUL.) Beneath this city are extensive galleries, called "catacombs," which were used from about the time of the apostles (one of the inscriptions found in them bears the date A.D. 71) for some three hundred years as places of refuge in the time of persecution, and also of worship and burial. About four thousand inscriptions have been found in the catacombs. These give an interesting insight into the history of the church at Rome down to the time of Constantine.