city, seat (1836) of Warren county, western Mississippi, U.S. It lies on the Mississippi River, at the mouth of the Yazoo River, 44 miles (71 km) west of Jackson. Frenchmen settled there and built Fort-Saint-Pierre (1719) on the high bluffs, but the settlement was wiped out by Native Americans 10 years later. A military outpost established on the site by Spaniards in 1790 was known as Nogales, later called Walnut Hills. A sprawling community developed, which was named for Newitt (or Newit) Vick, a Methodist minister who laid out the town. The settlement prospered as a shipping point. Because of its strategic location, Vicksburg was besieged by Union forces for 47 days during General Ulysses S. Grant's campaign for control of the Mississippi River during the American Civil War; it surrendered on July 4, 1863. The Old Court House (1858) is now a museum displaying Confederate and antebellum artifacts.
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