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mid-13c., "action of waiting," verbal noun identical with Old English abad, past participle of abiden "to abide" (see abide), used as a verbal noun. The present-to-preterite vowel change is consistent with an Old English class I strong verb (ride/rode, etc.). Meaning "habitual residence" is first attested 1570s.
Old English abidan, gebidan "remain, wait, delay, remain behind," from ge- completive prefix (denoting onward motion; see a- (1)) + bidan "bide, remain, wait, dwell" (see bide). Originally intransitive (with genitive of the object: we abidon his "we waited for him"); transitive sense emerged in Middle English. Meaning "to put up with" (now usually negative) first recorded 1520s. Related: Abided; abiding. The historical conjugation is abide, abode, abidden, but the modern formation is now generally weak.