accidence

accidence

[ak-si-duhns]
noun
1.
the rudiments or essentials of a subject.
2.
Grammar.
a.
the study of inflection as a grammatical device.
b.
the inflections so studied.

Origin:
1500–1510; < Latin accidentia, neuter plural of accidēns (present participle of accidere to fall, befall). See accident

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World English Dictionary
accidence (ˈæksɪdəns)
 
n
inflectional morphology; the part of grammar concerned with changes in the form of words by internal modification or by affixation, for the expression of tense, person, case, number, etc
 
[C15: from Latin accidentia accidental matters, hence inflections of words, from accidere to happen. See accident]

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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

accidence
"part of grammar dealing with inflection," c.1500, from misspelling of accidents, from L. accidentia (used as a term in grammar by Quintilian), neut. pl. of accidens, prp. of accidere (see accident). So called because they change in accordance with use.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia

accidence

in linguistics, the change in the form of a word (in English, usually the addition of endings) to mark such distinctions as tense, person, number, gender, mood, voice, and case. English inflection indicates noun plural (cat, cats), third person singular present tense (I, you, we, they buy; he buys), past tense (we walk, we walked), verbals (called, calling), and comparatives (big, bigger, biggest). Changes within the stem, or main word part, are another type of inflection, as in sing, sang, sung and goose, geese. The paradigm of the Old Icelandic u-stem noun skjoldr ("shield"), for example, includes forms with both internal change and suffixation; the nominative singular form is skjoldr, the genitive singular is skjaldar, and the nominative plural is skildir. Many languages, such as Latin, Spanish, French, and German, have a much more extensive system of inflection. For example, Spanish shows verb distinction for person and number, "I, you, he, they live," vivo, vives, vive, viven ("I live," "you live," "he lives," "they live"). A number of languages, especially non-Indo-European ones, inflect with prefixes and infixes, word parts added before a main part or within the main part. Inflection differs from derivation in that it does not change the part of speech. Derivation uses prefixes and suffixes (e.g., in-, -tion) to form new words (e.g., inform, deletion), which can then take inflections.

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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