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long horn played by Alpine herdsmen and villagers, sounded for intercommunication and at daily ceremonies and seasonal festivals. It is carved or bored in wood and overwound with birch bark. Some instruments are straight, reaching 12 feet (4 metres) in length; since the mid-19th century, especially in Switzerland, the bell may be upcurved. Others, mainly in the eastern Alps, are trumpet-shaped; S-shapes also occur. The compass and notes are usually those of a natural (unvalved) French horn in F (about three octaves upward from written F below the bass staff). In the 19th century, playing in trios and quartets was introduced