(of fish) migrating from salt water to spawn in fresh water, as salmon of the genera Salmo and Oncorhynchus (distinguished from catadromous ).

1745–55; < Greek anádromos running upward. See ana-, -drome, -ous Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
anadromous (əˈnædrəməs)
Compare catadromous (of fishes such as the salmon) migrating up rivers from the sea in order to breed
[C18: from Greek anadromos running upwards, from ana- + dromos a running]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

of fish ascending a river to spawn (as salmon do), 1753, from Gk. anadromos "running upward," from ana "up, back" + dramein "to run" (see dromedary).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
anadromous   (ə-nād'rə-məs)  Pronunciation Key 
Relating to fish, such as salmon or shad, that migrate up rivers from the sea to breed in fresh water.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Big dams stop anadromous fish, the best-known of which are salmon, returning to
  their spawning-grounds to breed.
Coho salmon is an anadromous fish which needs a period in the marine
  environment to complete its life cycle.
Sticklebacks are anadromous fish, meaning they spend part of their lives in
  both freshwater and in the ocean.
Both species are anadromous and undertake upriver spawning migrations during
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