a person who has retired to a solitary place for a life of religious seclusion; hermit.
Also, anchoret.

1400–50; late Middle English anc(h)orite, conflation of Middle English ancre (Old English ancra, ancer) and Old French anacorite or Medieval Latin anachōrīta < Late Greek anachōrētḗs, equivalent to Greek anachōrē-, stem of anachōreîn to withdraw (ana- ana- + chōreîn to give way, verbal derivative of chôros space) + -tēs agent suffix; Old English forms < Old Irish *ancharae < Late Latin anachōrēta < Late Greek

anchoritic [ang-kuh-rit-ik] , adjective
anchoritically, adverb
anchoritism [ang-kuh-rahy-tiz-uhm] , noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
anchorite (ˈæŋkəˌraɪt)
a person who lives in seclusion, esp a religious recluse; hermit
[C15: from Medieval Latin anchorīta, from Late Latin anachōrēta, from Greek anakhōrētēs, from anakhōrein to retire, withdraw, from khōra a space]
fem n

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

mid-15c., "hermit (especially those of the Eastern deserts), recluse, one who withdraws from the world for religious reasons," from M.L. anchorita, from Gk. anakhoretes, lit. "one who has retired," agent noun from anakhorein "to retreat, go back, retire," from ana- "back" + khorein "withdraw, give place,"
from khoros "place, space, free space, room."
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
For one who retires from the world and takes up the life of an anchorite, there are nine defects inherent in garments of cloth.
He was as grave and taciturn as some cave-keeping anchorite.
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