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antimony

[an-tuh-moh-nee] /ˈæn təˌmoʊ ni/
noun, Chemistry
1.
a brittle, lustrous, white metallic element occurring in nature free or combined, used chiefly in alloys and in compounds in medicine. Symbol: Sb; atomic number: 51; atomic weight: 121.75.
Origin
late Middle English
1375-1425
1375-1425; late Middle English antimonie < Medieval Latin antimōnium, perhaps < dialectal Arabic uthmud
Related forms
antimonial, adjective, noun
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for antimonial

antimonial

/ˌæntɪˈməʊnɪəl/
adjective
1.
of or containing antimony
noun
2.
a drug or agent containing antimony

antimony

/ˈæntɪmənɪ/
noun
1.
a toxic metallic element that exists in two allotropic forms and occurs principally in stibnite. The stable form is a brittle silvery-white crystalline metal that is added to alloys to increase their strength and hardness and is used in semiconductors. Symbol: Sb; atomic no: 51; atomic wt: 121.757; valency: 0, –3, +3, or +5; relative density: 6.691; melting pt: 630.76°C; boiling pt: 1587°C
Word Origin
C15: from Medieval Latin antimōnium, of uncertain origin
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
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Word Origin and History for antimonial

antimony

n.

brittle metallic element, early 15c., from Old French antimoine and directly from Medieval Latin antimonium, an alchemist's term (used 11c. by Constantinus Africanus), origin obscure, probably a Latinization of Greek stimmi "powdered antimony, black antimony" (a cosmetic used to paint the eyelids), from some Arabic word (cf. al 'othmud), unless the Arabic word is from the Greek or the Latin is from Arabic; probably ultimately from Egyptian stm "powdered antimony." In French folk etymology, anti-moine "monk's bane" (from moine).

As the name of a pure element, it is attested in English from 1788. Its chemical symbol Sb is for Stibium, the Latin name for "black antimony," which word was used also in English for "black antimony."

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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antimonial in Medicine

antimony an·ti·mo·ny (ān'tə-mō'nē)
n.
Symbol Sb
An element having several allotropes, the most common of which is a brittle, silver-white crystalline metal. It is used in alloys and in flame-proofing compounds. Atomic number 51; atomic weight 121.76; melting point 630.6°C; boiling point 1,587°C; specific gravity 6.691; valence 3, 5.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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antimonial in Science
antimony
  (ān'tə-mō'nē)   
Symbol Sb
A metalloid element having many forms, the most common of which is a hard, very brittle, shiny, blue-white crystal. It is used in a wide variety of alloys, especially with lead in car batteries, and in the manufacture of flameproofing compounds. Atomic number 51; atomic weight 121.76; melting point 630.5°C (1,167°F); boiling point 1,380°C (2,516°F); specific gravity 6.691; valence 3, 5. See Periodic Table.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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