noun Pathology.
the loss of a previously held ability to speak or understand spoken or written language, due to disease or injury of the brain.

1865–70; < Greek: speechlessness, equivalent to a- a-6 + phat(ós) spoken (derivative of phánai to speak) + -ia -ia

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World English Dictionary
aphasia (əˈfeɪzɪə)
Compare alexia a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by partial or total loss of the ability to communicate, esp in speech or writing
[C19: via New Latin from Greek, from a-1 + -phasia, from phanai to speak]
adj, —n
adj, —n

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Word Origin & History

"loss of ability to speak," especially as result of brain injury or disorder, 1867, from Mod.L. aphasia, from Gk. a- "without" + phasis "utterance," from phanai "to speak," related to pheme "voice, report, rumor" (see fame). Aphasic is attested from 1868 as a noun, 1892 as an adj.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

aphasia a·pha·sia (ə-fā'zhə)
Partial or total loss of the ability to articulate ideas or comprehend spoken or written language, resulting from brain damage due to injury or disease. Also called logagnosia, logamnesia, logasthenia.

a·pha'si·ac' (-zē-āk') n.
a·pha'sic (-zĭk, -sĭk) adj. & n.
The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
aphasia   (ə-fā'zhə)  Pronunciation Key 
Partial or total loss of the ability to articulate ideas or comprehend spoken or written language, resulting from damage to the brain caused by injury or disease.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Apraxia may be occur with a language disorder called aphasia.
Aphasia is a communications disorder which does not effect intelligence.
It was merely a matter of lining up the two in sync, making a match between my
  pall-mall thought and aphasia.
Speech disorders caused by brain damage are lumped under the umbrella term
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