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canton, northeastern Switzerland, consisting of two autonomous half cantons. Appenzell is entirely surrounded by present-day Sankt Gallen canton. It was first mentioned by name in 1071 as Abbatis Cella, in reference to its rulers, the abbots (later prince abbots) of Sankt Gallen. As early as 1377, however, this portion of the abbots' domains formed an alliance with the Swabian free imperial cities and adopted a constitution of its own. The region defended itself against the abbots in the Appenzell War of 1403-10 and in 1411 was placed under the "protection" of the Swiss Confederation, of which it became a member in 1513. Religious differences after the Counter-Reformation led to the division of the canton in 1597 into the independent half cantons of Appenzell Inner-Rhoden (predominantly Roman Catholic) and Appenzell Ausser-Rhoden (predominantly Protestant). These names refer simply to the inner or outer portions, or districts, of Appenzell itself; Rhoden in its singular form is said originally to have meant a clearing.