|a screen or mat covered with a dark material for shielding a camera lens from excess light or glare.|
|a printed punctuation mark (‽), available only in some typefaces, designed to combine the question mark (?) and the exclamation point (!), indicating a mixture of query and interjection, as after a rhetorical question.|
|Appenzell (German apənˈtsɛl, ˈapəntsɛl)|
|1.||a canton of NE Switzerland, divided in 1597 into the Protestant demicanton of Appenzell Outer Rhodes and the Catholic demicanton of Appenzell Inner Rhodes. Capitals: Herisau and Appenzell, respectively. Pop: 53 200 and Pop: 15 000 (2002 est) respectively. Areas: 243 sq km (94 sq miles) and 171 sq km (66 sq miles) respectively|
|2.||a town in NE Switzerland, capital of Appenzell Inner Rhodes demicanton. Pop: 5447 (2000)|
canton, northeastern Switzerland, consisting of two autonomous half cantons. Appenzell is entirely surrounded by present-day Sankt Gallen canton. It was first mentioned by name in 1071 as Abbatis Cella, in reference to its rulers, the abbots (later prince abbots) of Sankt Gallen. As early as 1377, however, this portion of the abbots' domains formed an alliance with the Swabian free imperial cities and adopted a constitution of its own. The region defended itself against the abbots in the Appenzell War of 1403-10 and in 1411 was placed under the "protection" of the Swiss Confederation, of which it became a member in 1513. Religious differences after the Counter-Reformation led to the division of the canton in 1597 into the independent half cantons of Appenzell Inner-Rhoden (predominantly Roman Catholic) and Appenzell Ausser-Rhoden (predominantly Protestant). These names refer simply to the inner or outer portions, or districts, of Appenzell itself; Rhoden in its singular form is said originally to have meant a clearing.
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