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arduous

[ahr-joo-uh s or, esp. British, ahr-dyoo-] /ˈɑr dʒu əs or, esp. British, ˈɑr dyu-/
adjective
1.
requiring great exertion; laborious; difficult:
an arduous undertaking.
2.
requiring or using much energy and vigor; strenuous:
making an arduous effort.
3.
hard to climb; steep:
an arduous path up the hill.
4.
hard to endure; full of hardships; severe:
an arduous winter.
Origin
1530-1540
1530-40; < Latin arduus erect, steep, laborious; see -ous
Related forms
arduously, adverb
arduousness, noun
superarduous, adjective
superarduously, adverb
superarduousness, noun
unarduous, adjective
unarduously, adverb
unarduousness, noun
Synonyms
1. hard, toilsome, onerous, wearisome, burdensome, exhausting.
Antonyms
1. easy.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for arduousness

arduous

/ˈɑːdjʊəs/
adjective
1.
requiring great physical or mental effort; difficult to accomplish; strenuous
2.
hard to endure; harsh: arduous conditions
3.
hard to overcome or surmount; steep or difficult: an arduous track
Derived Forms
arduously, adverb
arduousness, noun
Word Origin
C16: from Latin arduus steep, difficult
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin and History for arduousness

arduous

adj.

1530s, "hard to accomplish, difficult to do," from Latin arduus "high, steep," also figuratively, "difficult," from PIE root *eredh- "to grow, high" (see ortho-). Literal sense of "high, steep, difficult to climb," attested in English from 1709.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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