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1928 (morphine barbiturate is from 1918), from German, coined 1863 by chemist Adolf von Baeyer (1835-1917) from Barbitursäure "barbituric acid," itself coined by Baeyer, perhaps from woman's name Barbara, or perhaps from Latin barbata, in Medieval Latin usnea barbata, literally "bearded moss." Second element is because it was obtained from uric acid. With chemical ending -ate (3).
barbiturate bar·bi·tu·rate (bär-bĭch'ər-ĭt, -ə-rāt', bär'bĭ-tur'ĭt, -āt', -tyur'-)
A salt or ester of barbituric acid.
Any of a group of barbituric acid derivatives that act as central nervous system depressants and are used as sedatives or hypnotics.