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city and administrative centre, Altay kray (region), south-central Russia, on the left bank of the Ob River at its confluence with the Barnaulka. In 1738 a silver-refining works was established and the settlement became the hub of the Altay mining region. It was a major trade centre in the second half of the 19th century. Barnaul has good communications by the navigable Ob, by the South Siberian, Turk-Sib, and Omsk-Barnaul railways, and by roads to the Kolyvan-Rubtsovsk mining area and Novosibirsk. As a consequence, its industrial importance has increased and its range of products grown wider. Today its engineering industries produce boilers, presses, diesel motors, and radios; other industries make cotton textiles, chemical fibres, cellophane, tires, and lumber and forest products. There is also a range of consumer-goods industries. Barnaul has a research institute of agriculture and livestock husbandry and institutes for engineering, teacher training, and medicine. Pop. (2002 est.) 603,500
kray (region), southwestern Siberia, Russia. Altay kray lies in the basin of the upper Ob River and its headstreams, the Biya and Katun. The kray borders Kazakhstan in the southwest.