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city, seat (1907) of Washington county, northeastern Oklahoma, U.S., on the Caney River. It was settled in the 1870s around Jacob Bartles's trading post. Growth was spurred by the discovery of oil in 1897 and the arrival of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1899. A replica of Oklahoma's first commercial well, the Nellie Johnstone No. 1, is in Johnstone Park, site of the original tapping. Oil and gas production, zinc smelting, and the manufacture of oil-field equipment are the city's economic mainstays.