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industrial region closely corresponding to the small south Staffordshire coalfield in the Midlands region of England; its name derives from its pollution-coated industrial landscape. The Black Country extends immediately to the west of the city of Birmingham, which itself lies off the coalfield, and makes up the western part of the metropolitan county of West Midlands. The clusters of industrial towns that earned this appellation sprang up in the 18th century in the historic counties of Staffordshire and Worcestershire with the intense exploitation and local use of coal and iron ore resources. Collieries, blast furnaces, and foundries filled the air with smoke and grime. Coal mining ceased by the end of the 20th century. The region, including all or most of the metropolitan boroughs of Wolverhampton, Walsall, Dudley, and Sandwell, remains industrial in character and has become even more urbanized. Industrial activity has shifted from iron-making to metal-using plants, which no longer give rise to such extreme pollution. The industrial past has left its imprint on the landscape, however, and much derelict land may still be seen.