any of about 119 species of birds of the family Pycnonotidae (order Passeriformes) of Africa and Asia, including some called greenbuls and brownbuls. Members range in size from 14 to 28 cm (5.5 to 11 inches) long. They are active, noisy, plain-coloured birds that sometimes damage orchards. Representative of the 47 species of the genus Pycnonotus is the African bulbul (P. barbatus, including P. xanthopygos and P. tricolor), an 18-centimetre (7-inch) brownish gray bird. Others are the red-whiskered bulbul (P. jocosus, sometimes Otocompsa jocosa), which is indigenous from India to southern China, and the red-vented bulbul (P., sometimes Molpastes, cafer) of Pakistan to Java (natively) and the Fiji islands (by introduction). The 22 species of Phyllastrephus are common in tropical Africa. Finch-billed bulbuls (Spizixos) occur in southeastern Asia. The white-throated bulbul (Criniger flaveolus) ranges from the Himalayas to Bali. One of the larger species, 25 cm (10 inches) long, is the black bulbul (Hypsipetes, sometimes Microscelis, madagascariensis) of Madagascar, Indian Ocean islands, and southern Asia east to Taiwan; it has gray and black-and-white races.
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