cadenza

[kuh-den-zuh]
noun Music.
an elaborate flourish or showy solo passage, sometimes improvised, introduced near the end of an aria or a movement of a concerto.

Origin:
1745–55; < Italian < Vulgar Latin *cadentia a falling, equivalent to Latin cad(ere) to fall + -entia -ency; cf. chance

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World English Dictionary
cadenza (kəˈdɛnzə)
 
n
1.  a virtuoso solo passage occurring near the end of a piece of music, formerly improvised by the soloist but now usually specially composed
2.  informal (South African) a fit or convulsion
 
[C19: from Italian; see cadence]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

cadenza
"ornamental passage near the close of a song or solo," 1836, from It. cadenza; see cadence.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia

cadenza

(Italian: "cadence"), unaccompanied bravura passage introduced at or near the close of a movement of a composition and serving as a brilliant climax, particularly in solo concerti of a virtuoso character. Until well into the 19th century such interpolated passages were often improvised by the performer at suitable openings left for that purpose by the composer. They were displays not only of performing skill but also of more or less spontaneous invention and imagination. Modern performers use written-out cadenzas even for classical concerti, and in modern concerti that include cadenzas they are usually written by the composer. See also improvisation

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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Example sentences
Then comes a transitional clarinet cadenza that evolves into scurrying riffs and runs.
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