of, containing, or like calcium carbonate; chalky: calcareous earth.

1670–80; variant of calcarious < Latin calcārius of lime; see calx, -arious

calcareously, adverb
calcareousness, noun
noncalcareous, adjective
subcalcareous, adjective
uncalcareous, adjective Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
calcareous (kælˈkɛərɪəs)
of, containing, or resembling calcium carbonate; chalky
[C17: from Latin calcārius, from calx lime]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1670s, from L. calcarius "of lime," from calx (gen. calcis) "lime, limestone" (see chalk).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

calcareous cal·car·e·ous (kāl-kâr'ē-əs)
Composed of, containing, or characteristic of calcium carbonate, calcium, or limestone; chalky.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
calcareous   (kāl-kâr'ē-əs)  Pronunciation Key 
Composed of or containing calcium or calcium carbonate. Calcareous rocks contain as much as 50 percent calcium carbonate.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
If calcareous algae and copepods are decreasing in number and virility then
  this affects the entire food chain.
Anchored to the bottom inside calcareous tubes, they collected food particles
  with feathery arms that waved in the ocean currents.
Forams are an integral part of paleoclimatological research because their
  calcareous shells can be dated.
The beach was beautiful, with an enormous piece of calcareous mountain at the
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