the building in Washington, D.C., used by the Congress of the U.S. for its sessions.
(often lowercase) a building occupied by a state legislature.
the ancient temple of Jupiter at Rome, on the Capitoline.
the Capitoline.

1690–1700, Americanism; < Latin capitōlium temple of Jupiter on Capitoline hill, Rome, taken to be a derivative of caput head; replacing Middle English capitolie < Old North French

capital, Capitol (see usage note at capital).

See capital1. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
Capitol (ˈkæpɪtəl)
1.  a.  another name for the Capitoline
 b.  the temple on the Capitoline
2.  the Capitol the main building of the US Congress
3.  (sometimes not capital) Also called: statehouse (in the US) the building housing any state legislature
[C14: from Latin Capitōlium, from caput head]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

"building where U.S. Congress meets," 1793 (in writings of Thomas Jefferson), from L. Capitolium, temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill in ancient Rome. Used earlier of Virginia state houses (1699). Its use in American public architecture deliberately evokes Roman republican imagery.
With reference to the Roman citadel, it is recorded from late 14c. Relationship to capital is likely but not certain.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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