chalcedony

[kal-sed-n-ee, kal-suh-doh-nee]
noun, plural chalcedonies.
a microcrystalline, translucent variety of quartz, often milky or grayish.

Origin:
1275–1325; Middle English calcedonie < Late Latin chalcēdōnius (Vulgate, Rev. XIX, 19), equivalent to chalcēdōn- (< Greek chalkēdṓn chalcedony, identified by Saint Jerome with Chalcedon, the city) + -ius -ious

chalcedonic [kal-si-don-ik] , chalcedonous, adjective
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
chalcedony (kælˈsɛdənɪ)
 
n , pl -nies
a microcrystalline often greyish form of quartz with crystals arranged in parallel fibres: a gemstone. Formula: SiO2
 
[C15: from Late Latin chalcēdōnius, from Greek khalkēdōn a precious stone (Revelation 21:19), perhaps named after Khalkēdōn Chalcedon, town in Asia Minor]
 
chalcedonic
 
adj

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

chalcedony
c.1300, from L. calcedonius, in Vulgate translating Gk. khalkedon in Rev. xxi.19, found nowhere else. Connection with Chalcedon in Asia Minor "is very doubtful" [OED]. The city name is from Phoenician and means "new town."
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
chalcedony   (kāl-sěd'n-ē)  Pronunciation Key 
A type of quartz that has a waxy luster and varies from transparent to translucent. It is usually white, pale-blue, gray, brown, or black and is often found as a lining in cavities. Agate, flint, and onyx are forms of chalcedony. Chemical formula: SiO2.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Easton
Bible Dictionary

Chalcedony definition


Mentioned only in Rev. 21:19, as one of the precious stones in the foundation of the New Jerusalem. The name of this stone is derived from Chalcedon, where it is said to have been first discovered. In modern mineralogy this is the name of an agate-like quartz of a bluish colour. Pliny so names the Indian ruby. The mineral intended in Revelation is probably the Hebrew _nophekh_, translated "emerald" (Ex. 28:18; 39:11; Ezek. 27:16; 28:13). It is rendered "anthrax" in the LXX., and "carbunculus" in the Vulgate. (See CARBUNCLE.)

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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Example sentences
Chalcedony is a catch all term that includes many well known varieties of
  cryptocrystalline quartz gemstones.
Solutions containing silica permeated the cinders until favorable points for
  chalcedony deposition were achieved.
Chalcedony is actually cryptocrystalline quartz having a fibrous microscopic
  texture.
Agate, chert, petrified wood and flint are all chalcedony.
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