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The emission of light by a substance as a result of undergoing a chemical reaction that does not involve an increase in its temperature. Chemiluminescence usually occurs when a highly oxidized molecule, such as a peroxide, reacts with another molecule. The bond between the two oxygen atoms in a peroxide is relatively weak, and when it breaks the atoms must reorganize themselves, releasing energy in the form of light. Compare bioluminescence.
emission of electromagnetic radiation during the course of chemical reactions. Such radiation, whether ultraviolet, visible, or infrared, is most commonly generated by oxidation. The radiation can usually be ascribed to the transfer of the oxidation energy to a molecule that is itself not undergoing oxidation. This molecule then loses the excitation energy by emitting light of the proper wavelength. A large number of substances (e.g., formaldehyde, paraldehyde, acrolein, lophine, glucose, lecithin, and cholesterol) luminesce if slowly oxidized in alcoholic alkaline solution. Another group of chemiluminescences is connected with the oxidation of sulfur compounds. The widespread luminescence of such living organisms as fireflies and bacteria is based on the oxidation of luciferin in the presence of an enzyme, luciferase. Chemiluminescence that occurs in living organisms is called bioluminescence (q.v.).