a person who makes a claim.

1740–50; claim + -ant

preclaimant, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
claimant (ˈkleɪmənt)
1.  a person who makes a claim
2.  Compare defendant Formerly called: plaintiff a person who brings a civil action in a court of law

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

1747, from claim, on model of appellant, defendant, etc.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
The ruling was a disappointment to the claimant tribes.
Claimant refuses to cooperate with a request for evidence or action.
The burden of proof for supernatural claims lies with the claimant.
If the claimant accepts the offer of amends, it's the end of the case-barring
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