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8 Words That Are Older Than You Think

clove1

[klohv] /kloʊv/
noun
1.
the dried flower bud of a tropical tree, Syzygium aromaticum, of the myrtle family, used whole or ground as a spice.
2.
the tree itself.
Origin
1175-1225
1175-1225; Middle English clow(e), short for clow-gilofre < Old French clou de gilofre. See clou, gillyflower

clove2

[klohv] /kloʊv/
noun, Botany
1.
one of the small bulbs formed in the axils of the scales of a mother bulb, as in garlic.
Origin
before 1000; Middle English; Old English clufu bulb (cognate with Middle Dutch clōve, Dutch kloof); akin to cleave2

clove3

[klohv] /kloʊv/
verb
1.
a simple past tense of cleave2 .

clove4

[klohv] /kloʊv/
noun
1.
a British unit of weight for wool, cheese, etc., usually equivalent to 8 pounds (3.6 kilograms).
Origin
1300-50; Middle English claue < Anglo-French clove, earlier clou, equivalent to Anglo-Latin clāvus, Latin: nail; see clove1

cleave1

[kleev] /kliv/
verb (used without object), cleaved or (Archaic) clave; cleaved; cleaving.
1.
to adhere closely; stick; cling (usually followed by to).
2.
to remain faithful (usually followed by to):
to cleave to one's principles in spite of persecution.
Origin
before 900; Middle English cleven, Old English cleofian, cognate with Old High German klebēn (German kleben)
Related forms
cleavingly, adverb

cleave2

[kleev] /kliv/
verb (used with object), cleft or cleaved or clove, cleft or cleaved or cloven, cleaving.
1.
to split or divide by or as if by a cutting blow, especially along a natural line of division, as the grain of wood.
2.
to make by or as if by cutting:
to cleave a path through the wilderness.
3.
to penetrate or pass through (air, water, etc.):
The bow of the boat cleaved the water cleanly.
4.
to cut off; sever:
to cleave a branch from a tree.
verb (used without object), cleft or cleaved or clove, cleft or cleaved or cloven, cleaving.
5.
to part or split, especially along a natural line of division.
6.
to penetrate or advance by or as if by cutting (usually followed by through).
Origin
before 950; Middle English cleven, Old English clēofan, cognate with Old High German klioban (German klieben), Old Norse kljūfa; akin to Greek glýphein to carve, Latin glūbere to peel
Synonyms
1. halve, rend, rive.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Examples from the web for clove
  • Pin the bay leaf to the onion with the clove, and add it to the pot.
  • In between drags on a clove cigarette, he told me that he left his village to find work.
  • We sipped on the sorrel together, enjoying its sweetness and tartness, its underlying layer of cinnamon and clove.
  • One is a deep bronze-colored mulled cider sorbet with hints of cinnamon, allspice and clove.
  • When one side blackens, turn each clove to another side.
  • clove oil applied either as a pre-plant or as a drench provided protection against seedling damping-off.
  • clove cigarettes contain both tobacco and clove flavoring.
  • There are times when a pre-formed clove hitch can be slipped over an object such as a pike pole or extinguisher.
British Dictionary definitions for clove

clove1

/kləʊv/
noun
1.
a tropical evergreen myrtaceous tree, Syzygium aromaticum, native to the East Indies but cultivated elsewhere, esp Zanzibar
2.
the dried unopened flower buds of this tree, used as a pungent fragrant spice
Word Origin
C14: from Old French clou de girofle, literally: nail of clove, clou from Latin clāvus nail + girofle clove tree

clove2

/kləʊv/
noun
1.
any of the segments of a compound bulb that arise from the axils of the scales of a large bulb
Word Origin
Old English clufu bulb; related to Old High German klovolouh garlic; see cleave1

clove3

/kləʊv/
verb
1.
a past tense of cleave1

cleave1

/kliːv/
verb cleaves, cleaving, cleft, cleaved, clove, cleft, cleaved, cloven
1.
to split or cause to split, esp along a natural weakness
2.
(transitive) to make by or as if by cutting: to cleave a path
3.
when intr, foll by through. to penetrate or traverse
Derived Forms
cleavable, adjective
cleavability, noun
Word Origin
Old English clēofan; related to Old Norse kljūfa, Old High German klioban, Latin glūbere to peel

cleave2

/kliːv/
verb
1.
(intransitive) foll by to. to cling or adhere
Word Origin
Old English cleofian; related to Old High German klebēn to stick
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin and History for clove
n.

dried flowerbud of a certain tropical tree, used as a spice, late 15c., earlier clowes (14c.), from Anglo-French clowes de gilofre (c.1200), Old French clou de girofle "nail of gillyflower," so called from its shape, from Latin clavus "a nail" (see slot (n.2)). For second element, see gillyflower. The two cloves were much confused in Middle English. The clove pink is so called from the scent of the flowers.

"slice of garlic," Old English clufu "clove (of garlic), bulb, tuber," from Proto-Germanic *klubo "cleft, thing cloven," from PIE *gleubh- "to tear apart, cleave" (see cleave (v.1)). Its Germanic cognates mostly lurk in compounds that translate as "clove-leek;" e.g. Old Saxon clufloc, Old High German chlobilouh. Dissimilation produced Dutch knoflook, German knoblauch.

cleave

v.

"to split," Old English cleofan, cleven, cliven "to split, separate" (class II strong verb, past tense cleaf, past participle clofen), from Proto-Germanic *kleubanan (cf. Old Saxon klioban, Old Norse kljufa, Danish klöve, Dutch kloven, Old High German klioban, German klieben "to cleave, split"), from PIE root *gleubh- "to cut, slice" (see glyph).

Past tense form clave is recorded in Northern writers from 14c. and was used with both verbs (see cleave (v.2)), apparently by analogy with other Middle English strong verbs. Clave was common to c.1600 and still alive at the time of the KJV; weak past tense cleaved for this verb also emerged in 14c.; cleft is still later. The past participle cloven survives, though mostly in compounds.

"to adhere," Middle English cleven, clevien, cliven, from Old English clifian, cleofian, from West Germanic *klibajanan (cf. Old Saxon klibon, Old High German kliban, Dutch kleven, Old High German kleben, German kleben "to stick, cling, adhere"), from PIE *gloi- "to stick" (see clay). The confusion was less in Old English when cleave (v.1) was a class 2 strong verb; but it has grown since cleave (v.1) weakened, which may be why both are largely superseded by stick (v.) and split (v.).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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