cog

1 [kog, kawg]
noun
1.
(not in technical use) a gear tooth, formerly especially one of hardwood or metal, fitted into a slot in a gearwheel of less durable material.
2.
3.
a person who plays a minor part in a large organization, activity, etc.: He's just a small cog in the financial department.
verb (used without object), cogged, cogging.
4.
(of an electric motor) to move jerkily.
verb (used with object), cogged, cogging.
5.
to roll or hammer (an ingot) into a bloom or slab.
Idioms
6.
slip a cog, to make a blunder; err: One of the clerks must have slipped a cog.

Origin:
1200–50; Middle English cogge, probably < Scandinavian; compare Swedish, Norwegian kugg cog

Dictionary.com Unabridged

cog

2 [kog, kawg]
verb (used with object), cogged, cogging.
1.
to manipulate or load (dice) unfairly.
verb (used without object), cogged, cogging.
2.
to cheat, especially at dice.

Origin:
1525–35; origin uncertain

cog

3 [kog, kawg]
noun
1.
Carpentry. (in a cogged joint) the tongue in one timber, fitting into a corresponding slot in another.
2.
Mining. a cluster of timber supports for a roof. Compare chock ( def 4 ).
verb (used with object), verb (used without object), cogged, cogging.
3.
Carpentry. to join with a cog.

Origin:
1855–60; special use of cog1; replacing cock in same sense, special use of cock1 (in sense of projection); see coak

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
cog1 (kɒɡ)
 
n
1.  any of the teeth or projections on the rim of a gearwheel or sprocket
2.  a gearwheel, esp a small one
3.  a person or thing playing a small part in a large organization or process
 
vb , cogs, cogging, cogged
4.  (tr) metallurgy to roll (cast-steel ingots) to convert them into blooms
 
[C13: of Scandinavian origin; compare Danish kogge, Swedish kugge, Norwegian kug]

cog2 (kɒɡ)
 
vb , cogs, cogging, cogged
slang to cheat (in a game, esp dice), as by loading a dice
 
[C16: originally a dice-playing term, of unknown origin]

cog3 (kɒɡ)
 
n
1.  a tenon that projects from the end of a timber beam for fitting into a mortise
 
vb , cogs, cogging, cogged
2.  (tr) to join (pieces of wood) with cogs
 
[C19: of uncertain origin]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

cog
"tooth on a wheel," mid-13c., probably a borrowing from a Scandinavian language (cf. Norwegian kugg "cog").
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
Cite This Source
Example sentences
All the myriad cogs mesh because their structures are isomorphic.
The clock metaphor was also a key for understanding the mechanism as a
  collection of interacting cogs and wheels.
It is as though they are exempt from social responsibility since they are mere
  economic cogs.
We need to be reminded that people aren't simply cogs in a machine and that
  community and family matters.
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