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ceremony whereby a sovereign is inaugurated into office by receiving upon his or her head the crown, which is the chief symbol of regal authority. From earliest historical times a king, queen, or chieftain was inaugurated by some public ceremony; the sovereign might be raised upon a shield, presented with a spear, or invested with a distinctive robe or headdress. When Europe became Christianized in the Middle Ages, some of these older customs were grafted onto a religious service derived from Old Testament descriptions of the anointing and crowning of Saul and other Israelite kings. In the typical Christian coronation service, the sovereign is anointed with holy oil and receives the crown and other royal insignia from the clergy.