counterexample

[koun-ter-ig-zam-puhl, -zahm-]
noun
an example that refutes an assertion or claim.

Origin:
1955–60; counter- + example

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World English Dictionary
counterexample (ˈkaʊntərɪɡˌzɑːmpəl)
 
n
an example or fact that is inconsistent with a hypothesis and may be used in argument against it

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Example sentences
Where people are involved, you can find a counterexample to any statement made.
My counterexample above demonstrates this pretty clearly.
Economics does not provide the necessary objective evidence for proof by
  counterexample.
In fact, it strikes me that marriage provides a great counterexample.
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