decile

[des-il, -ahyl]
noun Statistics.
one of the values of a variable that divides the distribution of the variable into ten groups having equal frequencies.

Origin:
1880–85; dec- + -ile

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World English Dictionary
decile (ˈdɛsɪl, -aɪl)
 
n
statistics
 a.  See also percentile one of nine actual or notional values of a variable dividing its distribution into ten groups with equal frequencies: the ninth decile is the value below which 90% of the population lie
 b.  a tenth part of a distribution
 
[C17: from deca- + -ile]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

decile
1670s in astrology; 1882 in statistics; from M.L. *decilis, from decem "ten" on the model of quintilis, sextilis.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Here's their table showing a breakdown of taxes by income decile.
Income effects on the top decile are statistically insignificant.
How about the ratio of these expenditures per household plotted against total income, broken down by decile.
Data that are viewed at the decile level may hide considerable variation in households' burdens within deciles.
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