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Down syndrome

noun, Pathology
a genetic disorder, associated with the presence of an extra chromosome 21, characterized by mild to severe mental impairment, weak muscle tone, shorter stature, and a flattened facial profile.
Also, Down's syndrome.
Also called trisomy 21.
See trisomy.
1960-65; after John L. H. Down (1828-96), British physician
Usage note
Down syndrome (or Down's syndrome) has replaced earlier terms, such as mongolism to refer to the disease and Mongoloid or Mongol to refer to the affected person, all of which are now considered offensive.

Down's syndrome

noun, Pathology Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
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British Dictionary definitions for down-syndrome

Down's syndrome

  1. (pathol) a condition caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21 resulting in learning difficulties and physical differences, such as shorter stature Former name (offensive) mongolism Technical name trisomy 21
  2. (as modifier): a Down's syndrome baby
Usage note
Although the condition was once generally known as mongolism, this term has been considered offensive since the early 1960s. The terms Down's syndrome or (US) Down syndrom are now preferred.
Word Origin
C19: after John Langdon-Down (1828–96), English physician
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for down-syndrome

Down's Syndrome

1961, from J.L.H. Down (1828-1896), English physician; chosen as a less racist name for the condition than earlier mongolism.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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down-syndrome in Medicine

Down syndrome (doun) or Down's syndrome (dounz)
A congenital disorder, caused by the presence of an extra 21st chromosome, in which the affected person has mild to moderate mental retardation, short stature, and a flattened facial profile. Also called trisomy 21, trisomy 21 syndrome.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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down-syndrome in Culture

Down's syndrome definition

A congenital condition, caused by an abnormality in the chromosomes, marked by moderate to severe mental retardation and changes in certain physical features.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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