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city, seat (1834) of Dubuque county, northeastern Iowa, U.S., on the Mississippi River (bridged to East Dubuque, Illinois), opposite the junction of the Wisconsin and Illinois boundary lines. It was named for Julien Dubuque (1762-1810), a French Canadian trader who in 1788 concluded a treaty with the Fox giving him lead-mining rights. He was the first person of European descent to settle permanently in the region later to become Iowa; a monument on a bluff overlooking the Mississippi marks the site of his mine and burial plot. Further concessions were rejected by Native Americans until the Black Hawk Treaty of 1832. Mining and sawmilling were pioneering enterprises, but with the development of river and rail transportation the city became industrialized. Meatpacking, agriculture, the manufacture of farm machinery, and publishing are among the main economic activities. Casino gambling is also important.