city, Thuringia Land (state), central Germany. It lies on the northwestern slopes of the Thuringian Forest, at the confluence of the Horsel and Nesse rivers, west of the city of Erfurt. Founded by the landgraves of Thuringia about 1150, Eisenach fell to the Saxon house of Wettin in 1264 and was chartered in 1283. It was intermittently the seat of a separate Saxon duchy between 1596 and 1741, when it fell to Saxe-Weimar. In 1817 the festival of the national political student movement took place there. The German Nationalverein (National Society) to promote unification was founded in Eisenach in 1859, and in 1869 the Social Democratic Workers' Party was founded at the Congress of Eisenach.
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