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city, capital (since 1925) of Burgenland Bundesland (federal state), eastern Austria. It lies at the southern end of the Leitha Mountains, south of Vienna. Mentioned in 1264, it was a free city of Hungary from 1648 until Burgenland was ceded to Austria in 1921. Eisenstadt's notable landmarks include the former castle of the Esterhazy princes (14th century; rebuilt 1663-72); the Mount Calvary Church (Kalvarienbergkirche), with the tomb of the composer Joseph Haydn; the house where Haydn lived from 1766 to 1790, now a museum; the parish church (1450-1522); and the Franciscan church (1625-30), with the Esterhazy family vault. The castle of Forchtenstein, former seat of the counts von Mattersdorf, is nearby. Eisenstadt has orchards and vineyards, and its manufactures include textiles, ski equipment, metal kitchenware, and electrical equipment. A considerable portion of the city's labour force works in public administration and services. Eisenstadt also is a regional market centre. Pop. (2006) 12,190.
Bundesland (federal state), eastern Austria, bordering Hungary on the east, and Bundeslander Niederosterreich (Lower Austria) on the northwest and Steiermark (Styria) on the southwest. It has an area of 1,531 square miles (3,965 square km). Derived from parts of the four former west Hungarian comitats (counties) of Pressburg (Bratislava), Wieselburg (Moson), Odenburg (Sopron), and Eisenburg (Vasvar), it became an Austrian Bundesland in 1921. The low-lying parts of northern Burgenland belong to the Pannonian Basin, which is linked with the southern Vienna basin by two gateways situated north and south of the Leitha Mountains; the area is characterized by steppe and saline-heath vegetation, and its most striking feature is the Neusiedler Lake. The crystalline Rosalien Mountain Range, linked with the Alps, lies between northern and middle Burgenland. The latter is the most mountainous part of the state, subsiding eastward to the Pannonian Basin and rising westward to the Landsee and Bernsteiner Mountains and southward to the Gunser Mountains. Southern Burgenland is hill country, drained from northwest to southeast by streams accompanied by systems of terraces.