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city and administrative centre of Krasnodar kray (region), southwestern Russia, lying along the Kuban River. Founded about 1793 as a Cossack guardpost on the Kuban frontier, it developed as a military town. In 1867, after the Caucasian wars, it became a city and centre of the fertile Kuban region, and its prosperity increased following the arrival of the railways in the 1890s. The city's industries are largely concerned with processing the agricultural products of the region; there are also considerable engineering industries. Petroleum is refined and lubricants are produced. The city has a gridiron pattern of streets densely lined by poplar, acacia, and plane trees. Cultural institutions include Kuban State University (1920); teaching establishments (pedagogic, medical, agricultural, cultural, and food industry); research institutes for agriculture, tobacco, vegetable fats, canning, and the petroleum industry; and several theatres and museums. Pop. (1997 est.) 650,000.