else

[els]
adjective
1.
other than the persons or things mentioned or implied: What else could I have done?
2.
in addition to the persons or things mentioned or implied: Who else was there?
3.
other or in addition (used in the possessive following an indefinite pronoun): someone else's money.
adverb
4.
if not (usually preceded by or ): It's a macaw, or else I don't know birds.
5.
in some other way; otherwise: How else could I have acted?
6.
at some other place or time: Where else might I find this book?
Idioms
7.
or else, or suffer the consequences: Do what I say, or else.

Origin:
before 1000; Middle English, Old English elles (cognate with Old High German elles), equivalent to ell- other (cognate with Gothic aljis, Latin alius, Old Irish aile Greek állos, Armenian ayl other; cf. eldritch) + -es -s1


The possessive forms of somebody else, everybody else, etc., are somebody else's, everybody else's, the forms somebody's else, everybody's else being considered nonstandard in present-day English. One exception is the possessive for who else, which is occasionally formed as whose else when a noun does not immediately follow: Is this book yours? Whose else could it be? No, it's somebody else's.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
else (ɛls)
 
determiner
1.  in addition; more: there is nobody else here
2.  other; different: where else could he be?
 
adv
3.  or else
 a.  if not, then: go away or else I won't finish my work today
 b.  or something terrible will result: used as a threat: sit down, or else!
 
[Old English elles, genitive of el- strange, foreign; related to Old High German eli- other, Gothic alja, Latin alius, Greek allos]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

else
O.E. elles "other, otherwise, different," from P.Gmc. *aljaz (cf. Goth. aljis "other," O.H.G. eli-lenti, O.E. el-lende, both meaning "in a foreign land;" see also Alsace), an adverbial genitive of the neut. of PIE base *al- "beyond" (cf. Gk. allos "other," L. alius; see
alias). Synonym of other, the nuances of usage are often arbitrary.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Idioms & Phrases

else

see in someone's (else's) shoes; or else; something else; something else again.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of Idioms by Christine Ammer.
Copyright © 1997. Published by Houghton Mifflin.
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Example sentences
Perry dropped any pretenses that their attacks were aimed at anyone else.
But being able to feel a bit better-off than someone else makes it a bit more
  bearable.
Ask students if they have ever lived somewhere else.
If one method fails, teachers consult with colleagues to try something else.
Matching Quote
"Her mind is inferior to that of man, and we know that it requires the strongest of minds to become a good politician.... She has not sufficient stability of character. She would always follow the opinions of her father, brother or husband ... and this might do more hurt than good.... There is no need of it. There are men enough who have nothing else to do who can transact all necessary business.... If permitted to study politics she would understand the art of governing and she might usurp the authority of men and it would be rather revolting to our feelings to see her holding it over the lords of creation.... She is too fastidious. This needs no comment.... If woman should have the control of affairs, we should soon see woman placed in every department of office in the country, thus throwing many of our most distinguished men out of office, and of course out of employment, or they would not do anything else to support themselves, and would soon become pests to security.... she would soon be able to converse intelligently on the subject of politics, and on this subject equal men.... If we should see ladies attending conventions, traveling about the country in great carts drawn by many yoke of oxen, waving their pocket handkerchiefs to assembled multitudes, it would greatly shock our sensibilities.... She was never designed for it. Her eyes were never made to be spoiled in plodding over political trash.... I presume it would be quite as easy to give 40 times 40 reasons why gentlemen should not engage in politics with such fiery zeal that they sometimes do, as it is to give 40 why ladies should not engage in them as well."
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