ergative

ergative

[ur-guh-tiv]
adjective
1.
Grammar.
a.
(in certain languages, as Basque, Eskimo, and some caucasian languages) noting a case that indicates the subject of a transitive verb and is distinct from the case indicating the subject of an intransitive verb.
b.
similar to such a case in function or meaning, especially in indicating an agent, as the subject She in She opened the door, in contrast to the subject The door in The door opened.
2.
Linguistics. pertaining to a type of language that has an ergative case or in which the direct object of a transitive verb has the same form as the subject of an intransitive verb. Compare accusative ( def 2 ).
noun Grammar.
3.
the ergative case.
4.
a word in the ergative case.
5.
a form or construction of similar function or meaning.

Origin:
1945–50; < Greek ergát(ēs) worker (see ergate) + -ive

ergativity, noun
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World English Dictionary
ergative (ˈɜːɡətɪv)
 
adj
1.  denoting a type of verb that takes the same noun as either direct object or as subject, with equivalent meaning. Thus, "fuse" is an ergative verb: "He fused the lights" and "The lights fused" have equivalent meaning
2.  denoting a case of nouns in certain languages, for example, Inuktitut or Basque, marking a noun used interchangeably as either the direct object of a transitive verb or the subject of an intransitive verb
3.  denoting a language that has ergative verbs or ergative nouns
 
n
4.  an ergative verb
5.  an ergative noun or case of nouns
 
[C20: from Greek ergatēs a workman + -ive]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

ergative
1943, grammatical case used for the subjects of transitive verbs (in Eskimo, Basque, Caucasian languages), from Gk. ergatos "workman."
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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