Since at least the 14th century, English has both borrowed feminine nouns in -ess
from French (-esse
in French and in some early English forms) and applied the French ending to native or naturalized words, most frequently agent nouns in -er
Some of the earliest borrowings—titles for the nobility and church dignitaries—are still in use, among them countess, princess, duchess, empress, abbess,
Of the scores of new nouns that were created from the 14th century on, many have long ago disappeared entirely from use: devouress; dwelleress.
But many have survived, although their use has declined sharply.
Nouns in -ess
denoting occupation or profession are rapidly disappearing from American English. Airlines now refer to cabin personnel as flight attendants,
In the arts, authoress, editress, poetess, sculptress,
and similar terms are either rejected or discouraged and almost always replaced by author, editor, poet, sculptor.
Nouns in -ess
designating the holder of public office are hardly ever encountered in modern American usage. Women holding the office of ambassador, mayor, or governor are referred to by those titles rather than by the older, sex-marked ambassadress, mayoress,
has developed a special sense in relation to childcare; this use is less common in the U.S. than in Britain.) Among other terms almost never used in modern American English are ancestress, directress, instructress, manageress, oratress, postmistress,
If the sex of the performer is not relevant to performance of the task or function, the neutral term in -er
is now widely used.
Some nouns in -ess
are still current: actress
(but some women in the acting profession prefer to be called actors
); adventuress; enchantress; heiress
(largely in journalistic writing); hostess
(but women who conduct radio and television programs are referred to as hosts
); millionairess; murderess
; seamstress; seductress; sorceress; temptress;
(the substitute term server
has not been widely adopted). Jewess
are usually considered offensive today. Mistress
has given way to master
in the sense of one who has acquired expertise in something: She is a master at interpreting financial reports.
See also -enne