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complex oxide mineral, a niobate-titanate that forms hard, brilliant black crystals and masses in granite pegmatites and associated detrital deposits. Titanium replaces niobium-tantalum in the molecular structure to form the similar mineral polycrase; both it and euxenite often contain rare earths. These minerals are widespread in Norway, Madagascar, and Canada and also occur in Sweden, Finland, Greenland, Australia, Brazil, and the U.S. For chemical formula and detailed physical properties, see oxide mineral (table)