a hole or cavity made by excavating.
the act of excavating.
an area in which excavating has been done or is in progress, as an archaeological site.

1605–15; < Latin excavātiōn- (stem of excavātiō) a hollowing. See excavate, -ion

excavational, adjective
nonexcavation, noun
reexcavation, noun

1. See hole.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
excavate (ˈɛkskəˌveɪt)
1.  to remove (soil, earth, etc) by digging; dig out
2.  to make (a hole, cavity, or tunnel) in (solid matter) by hollowing or removing the centre or inner part: to excavate a tooth
3.  to unearth (buried objects) methodically in an attempt to discover information about the past
[C16: from Latin excavāre, from cavāre to make hollow, from cavus hollow]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1610s, "action of excavating," from L. excavationem, noun of action from excavare (see excavate).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

excavation ex·ca·va·tion (ěk'skə-vā'shən)

  1. A natural cavity, pouch, or recess.

  2. A cavity formed artificially or as the result of a pathological process.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
So, they hired this local ostrich farmer to build down the staircase so they
  could conduct routine excavation of the site.
We follow a knot of workmen up the hill to rectangular pits shaded by a
  corrugated steel roof-the main excavation site.
Basalt from the excavation will be used to make concrete to build the locks.
Learn about the special technology used in the excavation along with the
  process of conserving the mural once it is uncovered.
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