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the measure of the light-gathering power of an optical system. It is expressed in different ways according to the instrument involved. The relative aperture for a microscope is called the numerical aperture (NA) and is equal to the sine of half the angle subtended by the aperture at an object point times the index of refraction of the medium between the object and the objective lens. For binoculars, telescopes, and photographic lenses in which the object may be distant, the relative aperture is taken as the ratio of focal length of the objective to the diameter of the entrance pupil. The relative aperture of a camera lens is sometimes expressed as a simple ratio-e.g., 1:4.5-or more commonly as its f-number, f/4.5. In either case, a lens of 180-millimetre focal length set at this relative aperture would have a pupil diameter (effectively, the lens diaphragm opening) of 40 mm.