a very fine thread or threadlike structure; a fiber or fibril: filaments of gold.
a single fibril of natural or synthetic textile fiber, of indefinite length, sometimes several miles long.
a long slender cell or series of attached cells, as in some algae and fungi.
Botany. the stalklike portion of a stamen, supporting the anther. See diag. under flower.
Ornithology. the barb of a down feather.
(in a light bulb or other incandescent lamp) the threadlike conductor, often of tungsten, in the bulb that is heated to incandescence by the passage of current.
Electronics. the heating element (sometimes also acting as a cathode) of a vacuum tube, resembling the filament in an incandescent bulb.
Astronomy. a solar prominence, as viewed within the sun's limb.

1585–95; < Neo-Latin fīlāmentum, equivalent to Late Latin fīlā(re) to wind thread, spin (see file1) + Latin -mentum -ment

filamented, adjective Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
filament (ˈfɪləmənt)
1.  the thin wire, usually tungsten, inside a light bulb that emits light when heated to incandescence by an electric current
2.  electronics a high-resistance wire or ribbon, forming the cathode in some valves
3.  a single strand of a natural or synthetic fibre; fibril
4.  botany
 a.  the stalk of a stamen
 b.  any of the long slender chains of cells into which some algae and fungi are divided
5.  ornithol the barb of a down feather
6.  anatomy any slender structure or part, such as the tail of a spermatozoon; filum
7.  astronomy
 a.  a long structure of relatively cool material in the solar corona
 b.  a long large-scale cluster of galaxies
[C16: from New Latin fīlāmentum, from Medieval Latin fīlāre to spin, from Latin fīlum thread]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

1594, from Mod.L. filamentum, from L.L. filare "to spin, draw out in a long line," from L. filum "thread" (see file (v.)).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

filament fil·a·ment (fĭl'ə-mənt)
A fibril, fine fiber, or threadlike structure.

fil'a·men'tous (-měn'təs) or fil'a·men'ta·ry (-měn'tə-rē, -měn'trē) adj.
The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
filament   (fĭl'ə-mənt)  Pronunciation Key 
  1. A fine or slender thread, wire, or fiber.

  2. The part of a stamen that supports the anther of a flower; the stalk of a stamen. See more at flower.

    1. A fine wire that gives off radiation when an electric current is passed through it, usually to provide light, as in an incandescent bulb, or to provide heat, as in a vacuum tube.

    2. A wire that acts as the cathode in some electron tubes when it is heated with an electric current.

  3. Any of the dark, sinuous lines visible through certain filters on the disk of the Sun. Filaments are solar prominences that are viewed against the solar surface rather than being silhouetted along the outer edges of the disk. See more at prominence.

The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
They could refuse to light up for no apparent reason, because of some
  infinitesimal rupture in the filament.
Both halogen and incandescent bulbs produce light by heating a tungsten
  filament with an electrical current.
As long as this filament remains unbent, a special clutch keeps the rest of the
  needle from advancing.
The newfound gas clouds could occur in a filament around such a galaxy.
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