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city, major port and industrial, commercial, and cultural centre of Croatia, located on the Kvarner (a gulf of the Adriatic Sea). It is the major port of Croatia. The city is situated on a narrow flatland between the Julian Alps and the Adriatic, spreading up the slopes and onto the landfills on the seafront. The name, dating from the 13th century, refers to the river called Rjecina in Serbo-Croatian and Fiumara, or Eneo, in Italian. The port is a primary naval base and a point of departure for coastal shipping. The coastal section of the Adriatic Highway begins at Rijeka, which also has rail connections to Trieste, Ljubljana, and Zagreb. Shipyards and repair facilities, major oil refineries, a paper factory, and a diesel-engine works (in which in 1866 the English owner Robert Whitehead invented the torpedo) are industries of major importance.